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Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Encyclopaedia Britannica’s editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree….
astronomy: The scope of astronomy
…astronomy has expanded to include astrophysics, the application of physical and chemical knowledge to an understanding of the nature of celestial objects and the physical processes that control their formation, evolution, and emission of radiation. In addition, the gases and dust particles around and between the stars have become the…
astronomy: The rise of astrophysics
In 1835 the French positivist philosopher Auguste Comte cited the chemical constitution of the stars as an example of knowledge that might be forever hidden. However, unknown to Comte, the development of spectroscopy was already revealing the composition of…
Henry Norris Russell
…the establishment of modern theoretical astrophysics by making physics the core of astrophysical practice. Bearing his name is the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a graph that demonstrates the relationship between a star’s intrinsic brightness and its spectral type and that represents Russell’s theory of the way stars evolve.…
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